Top 10 qualitative research blog posts

top 10 qualitative blog articles

We've now got more than 70 posts on the official Quirkos blog, on lots of different aspects of qualitative research and using Quirkos in different fields. But it's now getting a bit difficult to navigate, so I wanted to do a quick recap with the 10 most popular articles, based on the number of hits over the last two years.

 

Tools for critical appraisal of qualitative research

A review of tools that can be used to assess the quality of qualitative research.

 

Transcription for qualitative research

The first on a series of posts about transcribing qualitative research, breaking open the process and costs.

 

10 tips for recording good qualitative audio

Some tips for recording interviews and focus-groups for good quality transcription

 

10 tips for semi-structured qualitative interviewing

Some advice to help researchers conduct good interviews, and what to plan for in advance

 

Sampling issues in qualitative research

Issues to consider when sampling, and later recruiting participants in qualitative studies

 

Developing an interview guide for semi-structured interviews

The importance of having a guide to facilitate in-depth qualitative interviews

 

Transcribing your own qualitative data

Last on the transcription trifecta, tips for making transcription a bit easier if you have to do it yourself

 

Participant diaries for qualitative research

Some different approaches to self-report and experience sampling in qualitative research

 

Recruitment for qualitative research

Factors to consider when trying to get participants for qualitative research

 

Engaging qualitative research with a quantitative audience

The importance of packaging and presenting qualitative research in ways that can be understood by quantitative-focused policy makers and journal editors

 

There are a lot more themes to explore in the blog post, including posts on how to use CAQDAS software, and doing your qualitative analysis in Quirkos, the most colourful and intuitive way to explore your qualitative research.

 

 

Participant diaries for qualitative research

participant diaries

 

I’ve written a little about this before, but I really love participant diaries!


In qualitative research, you are often trying to understand the lives, experiences and motivations of other people. Through methods like interviews and focus groups, you can get a one-off insight into people’s own descriptions of themselves. If you want to measure change over a period, you need to schedule a series of meetings, and each of which will be limited by what a participant will recall and share.


However, using diary methodologies, you can get a longer and much more regular insight into lived experiences, plus you also change the researcher-participant power dynamic. Interviews and focus groups can sometimes be a bit of an interrogation, with the researcher asking questions, and participants given the role of answering. With diaries, participants can have more autonomy to share what they want, as well as where and when (Meth 2003).


These techniques are also called self-report or ‘Contemporaneous assessment methods’, but there are actually a lot of different ways you can collect diary entries. There are some great reviews of different diary based methods, (eg Bolger et al. 2003), but let’s look at some of the different approaches.


The most obvious is to give people a little journal or exercise book to write in, and ask them to record on a regular basis any aspects of their day that are relevant to your research topic. If they are expected to make notes on the go, make it a slim pocket sized one. If they are going to write a more traditional diary at the end of each day, make a nice exercise book to work in. I’ve actually found that people end up getting quite attached to their diaries, and will often ask for them back. So make sure you have some way to copy or transcribe them and consider offering to return them once you have investigated them, or you could give back a copy if you wish to keep hold of the real thing.

 

You can also do voice diaries – something I tried in Botswana. We were initially worried that literacy levels in rural areas would mean that participants would either be unable, or reluctant to create written entries. So I offered everyone a small voice recorder, where they could record spoken notes that we would transcribe at the end of the session. While you could give a group of people an inexpensive (~£20) Dictaphone, I actually brought a bunch of cheap no-brand MP3 players which only cost ~£5 each, had a built in voice recorder and headphones, and could work on a single AAA battery (which was easy to find from local shops, since few respondents had electricity for recharging). The audio quality was not great, but perfectly adequate. People really liked these because they could also play music (and had a radio), and they were cheap enough to be lost or left as thank-you gifts at the end of the research.

 

There is also a large literature on ‘experience sampling’ – where participants are prompted at regular or random intervals to record on what they are doing or how they are feeling at that time. Initially this work was done using pagers, (Larson 1989) when participants would be ‘beeped’ at random times during the day and asked to write down what they were doing at the time. More recent studies have used smartphones to both prompt and directly collect responses (Chen et al. 2014).

 

Secondly, there is now a lot of online journal research, both researcher solicited as part of a qualitative research project (Kaun 2015), or collected from people’s blogs and social media posts. This is especially popular in market research when looking at consumer behaviour (Patterson 2005), project evaluation (Cohen et al. 2006).

 

Diary methods can create detailed, and reliable data. One study found that asking participants to record diary entries three times a day to measure stigmatised behaviour like sexual activities found an 89.7% adherence rate (Hensel et al. 2012), far higher than would be expected from traditional survey methods. There is a lot of diary based research in the sexual and mental health literature: for more discussion on the discrepancies and reliability between diary and recall methods, there is a good overview in Coxon (1999) but many studies like Garry et al. (2002) found that diary based methods generated more accurate responses. Note that these kinds of studies tend to be mixed-method, collecting both discrete quantitative data and open ended qualitative comments.

 

Whatever the method you are choosing, it’s important to set up some clear guidelines to follow. Personally I think either a telephone conversation or face-to-face meeting is a good idea to give a chance for participants to ask questions. If you’ve not done research diaries before, it’s a good idea to pilot them with one or two people to make sure you are briefing people clearly, and they can write useful entries for you. The guidelines, (explained and taped to the inside of the diary) should make it clear:

  • What you are interested in hearing about
  • What it will be used for
  • How often you expect people to write
  • How much they should write
  • How to get in touch with you
  • How long they should be writing entries, and how to return the diary.

 

Even if you expressly specify that your participants should write their journals should be written everyday for three weeks, you should be prepared for the fact that many won’t manage this. You’ll have some that start well but lapse, others that forget until the end and do it all in the last day before they see you, and everything in-between. You need to assume this will happen with some or all of your respondents, and consider how this is going to affect how you interpret the data and draw conclusions. It shouldn’t necessarily mean that the data is useless, just that you need to be aware of the limitations when analysing it. There will also be a huge variety in how much people write, despite your guidelines. Some will love the experience, sharing volumes of long entries, others might just write a few sentences, which might still be revealing.

 

For these reasons, diary-like methodologies are usually used in addition to other methods, such as semi-structured interviews (Meth 2003), or detailed surveys. Diaries can be used to triangulate claims made by respondents in different data sources (Schroder 2003) or provide more richness and detail to the individual narrative. From the researchers point of view, the difference between having data where a respondent says they have been bullied, and having an account of a specific incident recorded that day is significant, and gives a great amount of depth and illumination into the underlying issues.

 

Qualitative software - Quirkos

 

However, you also need to carefully consider the confidentiality and other ethical issues. Often participants will share a lot of personal information in diaries, and you must agree how you will deal with this and anonymise it for your research. While many respondents find keeping a qualitative diary a positive and reflexive process, it can be stressful to ask people in difficult situations to reflect on uncomfortable issues. There is also the risk that the diary could be lost, or read by other people mentioned in it, creating a potential disclosure risk to participants. Depending on what you are asking about, it might be wise to ask participants themselves to create anonymised entries, with pseudo-names and places as they write.

 

Last, but not least, what about your own diary? Many researchers will keep a diary, journal or ‘field notes’ during the research process (Altricher and Holly 2004), which can help provide context and reflexivity as well as a good way of recording thoughts on ideas and issues that arise during the data collection process. This is also a valuable source of qualitative data itself, and it’s often useful to include your journal in the analysis process – if not coded, then at least to remind you of your own reflections and experiences during the research journey.

 

So how can you analyse the text of your participant diaries? In Quirkos of course! Quirkos takes all the basics you need to do qualitative analysis, and puts it in a simple, and easy to use package. Try for yourself with a free trial, or find out more about the features and benefits.

 

Sharing qualitative research data from Quirkos

exporting and sharing qualitative data

Once you’ve coded, explored and analysed your qualitative data, it’s time to share it with the world. For students, the first step will be supervisors, for researchers it might be peers or the wider research community, and for market research firms, it will be their clients. Regardless of who the end user of your research is, Quirkos offers a lot of different ways to get your hard earned coding out into the real world.

 

Share your project file
The best, and easiest way to share your coded data is to send your project file to someone. If they have a copy of Quirkos (even the trial) they will be able to explore the project in the same way you can, and you can work on it collaboratively. Files are compatible across Windows, Mac and Linux, and are small enough they can be e-mailed, put on a USB stick or Dropbox as needed.

 

Word export
One of people’s favourite features is the Word export, which creates a standard Word file of your data, with comments and coloured highlights showing your complete coding. This means that pretty much anyone can see your coding, since the file will open in Microsoft Office, LibreOffice/OpenOffice, Google Docs, Pages (on Mac) and many others. It’s also a great way to print out your project if you prefer to read though it on paper, while still being able to see all your coding. If you print the ‘Full Markup’ view, you will still be able to see the name (and author) of the code on a black and white printer!qualitative word export from quirkos


There are two options available in the ‘Project’ button – either ‘Export All Sources as Word Document’ which creates one long file, or ‘Export Each Source’ which creates a separate file for each source in the project in a folder you specify.

 

Reports
So this is the most conventional output in Quirkos, a customisable document which gives a summary of the project, and an ordered list of coded text segments. It also includes graphical views of your coding framework, including the clustered views which show the connections between themes. When generated in Quirkos, you will get a two columned preview, with a view of how the report will look on the left, and all the options for what you want to include in the report on the right.


You can print this directly, save it as a PDF document, or even save as a webpage. This last option creates a report folder that anyone can open, explore and customise in their browser, in the same way as you are able to in the Quirkos report view. This also creates a folder which contains all the images in the report (such as the canvas and overlap views) that you can then include directly in presentations or articles.

quirkos qualitative data report


There are many options available here, including the ability to list all quotes by source (ie everything one person said) or by theme (ie everything everyone said on one topic). You can change how these quotes are formatted (by making the text or highlight into the colour of the Quirk) and the level of detail, such as whether to include the source name, properties and percentage of coding.

 

Sub-set reports (query view)
By default, the report button will generate output of the whole project. But if you want to just get responses from a sub-set of your data, you can generate reports containing only the results of filters from the query view. So you could generate a report that only shows the responses from Men or Women, or by one of the authors in the project.

 

CSV export
Quirkos also gives you the option to export your project as CSV files – a common spreadsheet format which you can open with in Excel, SPSS or equivalents. This allows you to do more quantitative analysis in statistical software, generate graphs of your coding, and conduct more detailed sub-analysis. The CSV export creates a series of files which represent the different tables in the project database, with v_highlight.csv containing your coded quotes. Other files contain the question and answers (in a structured project), a list of all your codes, levels, and source properties (also called metadata).

 

Database editing
For true power users, there is also the option to perform full SQL operations on your project file. Since Quirkos saves all your project data as a standard SQLite database, it’s possible to open and edit it with a number of third party tools such as SQL Browser to perform advanced operations. You can also use standard command line operations (CLI) like SELECT FROM WHERE to explore and edit the database. Our full manual has more details on the database structure. Hopefully, this will also allow for better integration with other qualitative analysis software in the future.

 

If you are interesting in seeing how Quirkos can help with coding and presenting your qualitative data, you can download a one-month free trial and try for yourself. Good luck with your research!

 

Tools for critical appraisal of qualitative research

appraising qualitative data

I've mentioned before how the general public are very quantitatively literate: we are used to dealing with news containing graphs, percentages, growth rates, and big numbers, and they are common enough that people rarely have trouble engaging with them.

 

In many fields of studies this is also true for researchers and those who use evidence professionally. They become accustomed to p-values, common statistical tests, and plot charts. Lots of research is based on quantitative data, and there is a training and familiarity in these methods and data presentation techniques which create a lingua-franca of researchers across disciplines and regions.

 

However, I've found in previous research that many evidence based decision makers are not comfortable with qualitative research. There are many reasons for this, but I frequently hear people essentially say that they don't know how to appraise it. While they can look at a sample size and recruitment technique and a r-square value and get an idea of the limitations of a study, this is much harder for many practitioners to do with qualitative techniques they are less familiar with.

 

But this needn’t be the case, qualitative research is not rocket science, and there are fundamental common values which can be used to assess the quality of a piece of research. This week, a discussion on appraisal of qualitative research was started on Twitter started by the Mental Health group of the 'National Elf Service’ (@Mental_Elf) - an organisation devoted to collating and summarising health evidence for practitioners.

 

People contributed many great suggestions of guides and toolkits that anyone can use to examine and critique a qualitative study, even if the user is not familiar with qualitative methodologies. I frequently come across this barrier to promoting qualitative research in public sector organisations, so was halfway through putting together these resources when I realised they might be useful to others!

 

First of all, David Nunan (@dnunan79) based at the University of Oxford shared an appraisal tool developed at the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (@CebmOxford).

 

Lucy Terry (@LucyACTerry) offered specific guidelines for charities from New Philanthropy Capital, with gives five key quality criteria, that the research should be: Valid, Reliable, Confirmable, Reflexive and Responsible.

 

There’s also an article by Kuper et al (2008) which offers guidance on assessing a study using qualitative evidence. As a starting point, they list 6 questions to ask:

  • Was the sample used in the study appropriate to its research question?
  • Were the data collected appropriately?
  • Were the data analysed appropriately?
  • Can I transfer the results of this study to my own setting?
  • Does the study adequately address potential ethical issues, including reflexivity?
  • Overall: is what the researchers did clear?
     

The International Centre for Allied Health Evidence at the University of South Australia has a list of critical apprasial tools, including ones specific to qualitative research. From these, I quite like the checklist format of one developed by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme, I can imagine this going down well with health commissioners.

 

Another from the Occupational Therapy Evidence-Based Practice Research Group at McMaster University in Canada is more detailed, and is also available in multiple languages and an editable Word document.

 

Finally, Margaret Roller and Paul Lavrakas have a recent textbook (Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach 2015) that covers many of these issues in research, and detail the Total Quality Framework that can be used for designing, discussing and evaluating qualitative research. The book contains specific chapters on detailing the application of the framework to different projects and methodologies. Margaret Roller also has an article on her excellent blog on weighing the value of qualitative research, which gives an example of the Total Quality Framework.

 

In short, there are a lot of options to choose from, but the take away message from them is that the questions are simple, short, and largely common sense. However, the process of assessing even just a few pieces of qualitative research in this way will quickly get evidence based practitioners into the habit of asking these questions of most projects they come across, hopefully increasing their comfort level in dealing with qualitative studies.

 

The tools are also useful for students, even if they are familiar with qualitative methodologies, as it helps facilitate a critical reading that can give focus to paper discussion groups or literature reviews. Adopting one of the appraisal techniques here (or modifying one) would also be a great start to a systematic review or meta-analysis.

 

Finally, there are a few sources from the Evidence and Ethnicity in Commissioning project I was involved with that might be useful, but if you have any suggestions please let me know, either in the forum or by e-mailing daniel@quirkos.com and I will add these to the list. Don't forget to find out more about using Quirkos for your qualitative analysis and download the free trial.